Plumbing is a specialty combining all the techniques used to circulate fluids using pipes, tubes, valves, faucets, valves, pumps at the various points of use of a facility. The word originates from the Latin term for lead (plumbum) and comes from the use of this malleable metal to make plumbing installations in previous centuries.
Plumbing has become much more accessible to handymen as it is no longer necessary to have all the tools and know-how, especially for brazing. There are currently plastic components that are assembled by simple bonding (CPVC polyvinyl chloride) or screw fittings allowing the connection of different accessories (robinets, etc.) or to an old copper installation. There are even flexible pipes such as PER (High-density Polyethylene Reticul) for indoors and PE (low density polyethylene) for the outdoors (waterings, fountains, ponds...).
In 2010, thanks to the efforts of the World Plumbing Council, March 11 became World Plumbing Day. The purpose of this day is to raise awareness of the importance of plumbing in the issue of access to safe drinking water.
The materials used for the piping are:
Among these materials, the plumber preferably uses those that fall under the mechanics applied to the building, especially those intended for sanitary. Rain drain (drainage, etc.), beyond a metre outside the building, is a matter of civil engineering.
Connections between pipes can be made by:
The choice of faucet is important depending on the product that is routed through the piping and depending on the application. When pumps are required, special attention should be paid to the cavitation that may occur in certain applications and/or circumstances. For example, to control gases, a point faucet or bushel faucet will be used rather than a valve faucet.
A ball faucet, or ball faucet, can be a good substitute for a valve faucet for small diameters. Valve or skirt faucets are better suited to flow control. The valve valve is used to stop the passage of fluid and not to control its flow. A butterfly valve will offer a valve-like service for large diameters (64 mm or more), it can also be used to control flow with some efficiency.
Copper/steel connections should be avoided. The use of a bronze fitting or dielectric joint prevents galvanic corrosion.
The rigid piping must be supported at intervals while the flexible piping must be supported along its entire length. It is important to note that for high-rise buildings and buildings where there are many people gathering, seismic anchorages must be added as in hospitals, arenas and public places.
Given the wide variety of materials, the availability of these materials, the work of the final choice also implies the responsibility of the installer contractor and thus the responsibility of the engineer. The representative of the company that sells or manufactures the new materials on the market introduces them to the engineer and the contractor. The experience comes from poor trials of non-compliance with guarantees or non-performance of the data initially published. It is also possible that a bad application of a good product causes the problem.
In large projects, it is the mechanical engineer applied to the building who specifies the materials to be used, prepares the plans and specifications, monitors the execution of the work, and/or assumes responsibility for the installation and/or shares it as long as all the rules of the art have been respected by the plumbing contractor.